Every tariqa has a silsila. Silsilas originated with the initiation of Sufi orders which dates back to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Most silsilas trace their lineage back to his cousin and son-in-law Ali bin Abi Talib such as the Qadiriyyah, the Chishtiyya, the Noorbakhshia and the Suhrawardiyyah orders. However, other silsilas owe their ancestry to other caliphs such as the Naqshbandiyyah order of South Asia is through the Caliph Abu Bakr.
This site contains full information about Silsila.